Adversaries, Distributed Ledgers & Decentralization

A number of alternative structures for distributed ledgers have been proposed in recent years. All of these solutions offer better decentralization, faster and more numerous transactions serving a larger number of nodes. I have been skeptical of such systems for a long time. Given an adversarial environment I don’t believe you can maintain secure decentralized consensus AND have timely confirmation between arbitrary parties AND scale up to a large number of nodes/transactions.